Attacking Zcash

Anonymity Sets in Zcash Protocol Cryptocoins


Zcash Privacy in 5 Acts

What is an anonymity set?

An anonymity set, also called a “shielded pool” in Zcash Protocol is the set of potential funds that could be part of a transaction. The anonymity set is exactly the feature which adds privacy to a privacy coin. When a Zcash Protocol transaction is made, and shielded funds are spent from a shielded address (zaddr), zero-knowledge mathematics is used to spend the funds without leaking the metadata of which funds are being spent or where they came from.

Cryptocoins with very small anonymity sets seem like they have privacy, but in practice, they are like a football stadium with only a few dozen people in the seats. All of them are very easy to identify because there is no “crowd to hide in”. After four years, Zcash mainnet has a very small anonymity set and because they do not publish correct statistics about it, nor provide tools to measure it in real-time.

It’s likely that after just 1.5 years on our current mainnet, HUSH has a larger anonset than ZEC, but again, it’s unclear because they do not publish correct statistics nor provide tools at the full node level to measure them in real-time.

Anonymity sets of various coins

It’s certain that Pirate (ARRR) has the largest Zcash Protocol anonymity set, even though most community members are dumb-founded if you ask them to define what it is. It’s likely that Arrow (ARW), a recent Pirate competitor, has a larger anonset than Hush as well. This is a basic fact of z2z-only chains: they will almost always have higher zaddr usage percentage and anonsets, since it’s enforced at a consensus level.

In terms of Zcash Protocol coins which do not (yet) enforce z2z, the author believes Hush is currently the coin with highest zaddr usage (14.5% as of July 19th 2020) and largest anonset (about 93,000). When Hush enforces shielded only transaction in November 2020 at Block 340,000 , we will join Pirate and Arrow in being the only enforced-privcay Zcash Protocol coins.

Since no other coins can measure theirs in real-time, we implore Zcash, Pirate, Arrow and all Zcash Protocol coins to port the Hush Shielded Index -zindex so that we can have industry-wide comparison of our privacy, in real-time. If we cannot give our users and investors real-time detailed data about our privacy metrics, what kind of technology are we really creating?

Zcash + Hush Anonymity Sets

The anonymity set is a set, not a count! Josh Swihart, Head of Growth at Zcash Company does not seem to understand the difference between a daily count of transactions and the current set of privacy. They are completely different, yet he talks as if they are the same. All graphics from Swihart and Zcash Company related to transaction counts are NOT anonymity sets counts. They are transaction counts, which is not related directly to anonsets at all. It’s possible to have very high transaction counts and very small anonsets.

Zcash Company does not understand that the anonset can change with every block, and go up and down. For instance, if I use 10 shielded spends but only create 1 shielded output, that transaction will reduce the size of the anonset by 9, since 10 - 1 = 9.

They show graphs of counts monotonically going up, attempting to lie (badly) with statistics. Additionally, Zcash Company is running test scripts behind the scenes to massage their incorrectly-defined data. For about 17 months, the blue bars of Sprout shielded transactions have not increased or decreased noticeably but stay under 0.5% deviation month to month. This is almost certainly automated software by Zcash Sprout fund owners to increase shielded statistics.

In the 30 days leading up to July 19th 2020, Hush had 40,180 Sapling shielded transactions, just over the amount Zcash claims, of 38,016. We remind users that Hush was the very first Zcash Protocol coin to remove the old Sprout addresses, which had a severe inflation bug CVE-2019-7167. Hush has no Sprout transactions in it’s history and in fact almost all Sprout code has been deleted from the Hush codebase, to reduce potential attack surface of future bugs. It is the only coin which is able to claim these feats.

Anonymity Set Size

The size of the anonset is a count, and we can measure it at every block with a very simple equation:

    size(anonset) = size(outputs) - size(spends)

at a given block height H. It’s good to remember, anonsets are functions of block height! They go up and down with time. They go up when more outputs are created then inputs spent. The opposite happens, the anonymity set goes down when more spends are consumed and sent to a smaller number of outputs. Both of these types of shielded transactions happen normally in plain Zcash Protocol.

At every block, the Hush full node keeps track of all shielded spends and outputs, so it can calculate the size of the anonset at any block height. To our knowledge, Hush is the first cryptocoin to ever have this ability. Additionally, the custom Sietch technology by Hush Developers ensures that no Hush transaction can reduce the size of the anonset. On Hush mainnet, the size of our anonset can only stay the same, or increase.

Hush developers also believe that the Hush anonset grows faster than the Zcash, Arrow and potentially the Pirate anonset. Since Hush migrated to a second mainnet about 1.5 years ago, our statistics have had much less time to grow, compared to Pirate and Zcash mainnets. Our Shielded Index let’s us study this in real-time.

Hush details

When the -zindex CLI argument is enabled, the Shielded Index keeps tracks of many statistics, two of which are shielded_spends and shielded_outputs. This data can be retrieved via:

    hush-cli getchaintxstats

This will return a large amount of JSON data where the current anonset size will be returned as shielded_pool_size and can be verified as the differece between shielded_outputs and shielded_spends .

Current Stats

As of Hush Block Height 263573 on 19th July 2020:

What this means, is that every time you do a shielded Hush transaction, it’s “hiding” in the “anonymity set” of about 100,000 others, which gives us privacy. The larger the anonset, the more privacy. If our anonset was just a small number, most privacy properties are lost.

Comparing to Monero/CryptoNote coins

The way privacy works in Monero/CryptoNote coins is different and the way anonymity set is defined is different. With Monero, about 10 or so “mixins” are added to each transaction, so that it’s unclear exactly which funds are being spent. So the anonymity set of every Monero transaction is a different small set of about 10, which constantly changes.

The author believes that Zcash Protocol anonymity sets are stronger, but concedes that Monero has a much stronger dedication to privacy than Zcash and has better GUI wallets with great UI/UX.

For these reasons, Hush considers Monero to be it’s main competition, as Zcash mainnet is now supported by Chainanlysis, Elliptic and most likely Ciphertrace.


The author proposes they realize it would bad for marketing to broadcast how small their anonset is, after four years. This is why Josh Swihart lies with statistics and tells investors whatever they want to hear, including only showing some statistics which put Zcash in a positive light.

The author believes Electric Coin Company is purposefully misrepresenting numbers, grossly inept, or both.


Zcash investors are being grossly lied to, with cooked statistics that border on outright lies, as well as lies of omission about how the surveillance tech of ChainAnalysis, Elliptic and Ciphertrace actually work.

Electric Coin Company is part of the Military-Industrial-Surveillance complex, which involves all blockchain analysis companies and the Law Enforcement/Government entities which pay them like an IT department. These include but are not limited to:

As proof of this, we have documented a video which was deleted from YouTube and describes how Zcash Company works with these organizations. It is a presentation from ChainAnalysis and Ciphertrace to Law Enforcement agencies, describing their technology for de-anonymizing privacy coins.